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Summarize the philosophies of the philosophers studied during the first half of the semester (through Descartes). Point to their ideas that pertain to the problems of philosophy called metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, and political and social philsophy. Some of thehe readings pertain to one of the main problems, some to more than one. Make sure you outline the logic of the arguments the philosophers make, how they reach the conclusions they reach and give your evaluation of them.
Graded on the basis of accuracy, completeness and the use of the readings to explain and justify your comments.
Please indicate any outside sources you use (if you do so) in a parentheses after the use in the text.
Prompts: Paragraph or two on the Pre-Socratics
Apology: the charges, Socrates’ concept of wisdom, his defense, his punishment.
Republic: the main issue: the nature of justice, what the masses think, Socrates’ reply, the parts and virtues of the individual and the state, why the king should be a philosopher, the Forms (Ideas) and how they relate to material things, the Allegory of the Cave: it’s meaning to you.
Aristotle: the goal (end) of all goals (ends), the structure of the human organism, what humans need to be happy, the ultimate activity for humans.
Anselm and Aquinas: outline the logic of their proofs (1 for Anselm, 5 for Aquinas), do they convince you?
Lucretius: his metaphysical theory, relation to pre-Socratics and Epicurus, his understanding of death and life.
Descartes: his aim, his method of doubt, what he doubted, what he concluded at first, the logic of his argument to the existence of God and the worl