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capital punishment It is permissible in some states of the United States to execute someone who has been sentenced to death as a result of a crime committed against them. Capital crimes, often referred to as capital offenses, are crimes that result in the death sentence being applied. Many nations and states have abolished the death penalty, including the United States. It is currently banned in about 60 countries, with about half of them in Europe (Banner, 2022). Capital punishment is controversial in several nations, leading to political debates and referendums. In recent years, only 22 countries carried out executions, two-thirds of which were in Iran, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia. The death penalty is considered an extreme form of punishment because it has been proven to be a cruel method of execution that causes unnecessary pain and suffering before death. Additionally, there have been many instances where innocent people have been executed by mistake or intentionally due to judicial errors or faulty evidence presented during trial proceedings (Banner, 2022).
Supporters of capital punishment say that it is an effective deterrent against crime and that it keeps society safe from violent criminals who should be removed from society forever because of the danger they pose to others. They believe that life without parole does not provide enough protection for society from these dangerous criminals. Some people should not be allowed to live freely among us after committing such heinous crimes against humanity (Banner, 2022). On the other hand, the opponents of capital punishment argue that it violates the right to life and can lead to irreversible errors. They say that the death penalty does not deter crime and that life imprisonment is cheaper than execution. Their main argument against capital punishment violates human rights by depriving people of their lives without due process of law (Banner, 2022).
Banner, S. (2022). The death penalty. In The Death Penalty. Harvard University Press.
Health care Current Event: Health Care Should Be Affordable, Accessible, and of High Quality.
Health care is the preservation or enhancement of one’s health through health practitioners’ prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and amelioration of any sickness or injury. Cost, quality, and accessibility are the top three healthcare delivery goals (Bradley, 838–841). If the quality of health care is improved, more people will use facilities, which will lead to better health outcomes because of lower costs and shorter travel distances.
The resilience of the healthcare system is based on the provision of healthcare services. Resilient health systems may rely on their core processes to supply high-quality services even in times of crisis, such as political instability or epidemics. According to Bradley (838–841), because everyone’s circumstances are different, everybody should have a right to healthcare, which is why healthcare is vital and should be regarded as a right.
It takes a holistic strategy to improve healthcare quality. Countries that seek to enhance healthcare quality should explore interventions in a variety of areas, including leadership, information, patient and population participation, regulation, standards, institutional capacity, and service models. Building a national quality strategy is a critical first step in establishing a clear set of goals, appropriate interventions, and tools, and then coordinating the efforts of various stakeholders to improve care quality. Furthermore, good health care prioritizes the needs of the patient. It considers the requirements, culture, and beliefs of each patient individually (Bradley, 838–841). Countries should focus on improving the quality of health care centers if they want to build more productive and fair societies and economies.
Quality treatment is genuinely cost-effective, resulting in a faster and greater return on investment. In high-income countries, about 15% of hospital spending is devoted to preventing avoidable care complications and patient injury. Over time, costs are reduced due to more efficient workflow, fewer medication errors, preventive measures, and less waste. There are also reasons to think that health care is a human right that everyone should have (Bradley, 838–841).
Work cited: Bradley
, Andrew. “Positive rights, negative rights, and health care.” 838–841 in the Journal of Medical Ethics 36.12 (2010).
Welfare The United States has given consultative status to the Forum for Child Welfare. While attending an international congress for children’s rights, the welfare is intended to strengthen national nongovernmental child welfare groups globally, convey concerns, and collaborate on new projects on behalf of this planet’s most valuable resource: children. I chose a current event involving Governor Kathy Hochul and the State Legislature, who have announced their intentions to considerably raise child care spending and expand eligibility for child care subsidies. Kathy Hochul, as lieutenant governor of New York, frequently warned of a child care crisis in the state, where increasing costs had forced thousands of providers out of business and left many families with few options. First-time female governor Kathy Hochul acted quickly to correct the situation. Expanding state subsidies, constructing daycare centers on public university campuses, and providing better assistance to child care providers were all included in her first executive budget plan. In the Forum, Senator Jabari Brisport of Brooklyn, who worked on the Senate plan, said, “We are unmistakably on the way to a fully universal system in which all individuals are eligible for subsidized child care.” Free child care for all low-income families would be provided immediately, and the number of families getting benefits would be expanded each year, according to a proposal from the administration (Ashford). The forum heightens what we read, that there is no specific individual right to welfare; in its place, communities have obligations to provide for the specific needs of their members. Therefore, welfare is just a social compact in which members agree to divide their resources in line with a shared knowledge of their needs, subject to a precise political determination. Child Care: New York’s Next Big Budget Priority Breaking News, US News, World News, and Videos, The New York Times, March 21, 2022, www.nytimes.com/2022/03/21/nyregion/universal-childcare-ny.html. Accessed 22 Apr. 2022.
Based on Mill’s Theory, a character is based on utilitarianism. According to Mill, people are motivated by pleasure or happiness. Human beings live to maximize happiness, and happiness is the absence of pain. People’s actions and desires coincide with happiness or means to happiness. Therefore, to be moral is to act i that the consequences of the action taken produce happiness for the highest number of people (Mill, 1879). Human beings are guided by conscience, which dictates what people perceive as right or wrong. However, conscience should not be taken as an infallible guide to morality (Mill, 1879). Sometimes actions might be consciously wrong, but the consequences are good. Based on Mill’s utilitarianism moralitytheory, the focus should be on consequences rather than actions. Morality is tied to act utilitarianism. Given that humanbeings are motivated by happiness, an action is right if its results produce happiness for the highest number of people. And on the other hand, an action is wrong if it limits yielding happiness to the majority (Crash Course, 2016). Therefore, to be moral is to act based on a long-term larger-scale perspective. For example, an action might produce pain to a single person or violate the rights of the individual; however, if the consequence of the act is happiness for more people, then the act is right. Mill’s morality principle can be summed by saying that the rightness or wrongness of an act should not be judged on compliance with any other rules other than the rule of utilitarianism which dictates to always maximize the happiness of the majority. Kant theory Kant started his ethical theory by basing it on the belief that individuals could use reasons to determine how they act. He argued that reasons should determine how individuals behave. In this case, everyone must act in a way they would want others to act in similar circumstances. Kant expressed this thought as a categorical imperative. The categorical imperative involves ways individuals use to evaluate their moral actions, to make a moral judgment. In this case, it is not an order to perform certain actions. Kant believes that the categorical imperative is impartial and universal. It is universal primarily because all individuals can act similarly in the virtues of being rational. Human reasons are always principally constituted primarily by the search for necessity and universality.
Kant connects the concepts of categorical imperative with personal goodwill. According to Kant, the basis for a theory of good mainly lies in the will or intentions. They ensure moral praise is done out of an individual’s duty sense rather than the expected impacts. The only good thing about an action is the will, whereby Kant refers to it as goodwill. With this will, then individuals have the desire to perform a duty. Individuals’ duty is to act in a way that they want all people to act similarly in a unique circumstance towards everyone. Kant argues that individuals should act to the maxim they wish the other rational individuals to follow, just like a universal law. Therefore, his goodwill includes the principle of universalizability. Kant’s theory is basically the version of rationalism because it depends on reasons. The philosopher believed that no impacts had a vital moral worth in his arguments as the only good thing is based on goodwill. An individual with goodwill primarily chooses to do a moral duty. The duty is solely dictated by reason. Kant states that goodwill comprises an individual’s free will, which is motivated purely by reason,as moral duty is usually absolute. However, it is important to understand that goodwill cannot give individuals an ethical theory. Therefore, the overarching principle, particularly morality, is what individuals call the categorical imperative(Nance, 2012). Kant connects his arguments by stating that all individuals are seen as inherently worthy of dignity and respect. In this case, everyone’s duty must be based on the deontological ethic. He holds that a significant principle of an individual’s moral duty is a categorical imperative.
In addition, Kant connects goodwill, duty, and the categorical imperative, significantly showing how good they work together. For instance, he holds that a categorical imperative always drives people’s moral duties. He gives the formula of humanity, stating that people ought to treat everyone as an end but not a mere means (Crash Course, 2016). People are held together by the universal law whereby is something people need to do in similar situations. In this case, Kant states that people’s moral code cannot come from supernatural forces bearing in mind that the moral law abides in all individuals. Individuals need no religion to determine what to do, considering that what is wrong and right is knowable when individuals use their intellect. Moral duties influence an individual’s goodwill as well as the categorical imperative. Therefore, it is the responsibility of individuals to ask themselves what is the maxim of their actions or the general rule that may stand behind a particular action. Aristotle Summary
Based on Aristotle, humans should pursue a flourishing life that any good individual would have. There is a need to comprehend how humans operate to ascertain human goodness. Aristotle is convinced that coherent activity and rationally managed perception are based on the human purpose. Rationality is fundamentally acting in manners that appear to be in agreement with reason. This is achieved through managing the virtues that correlate with the distinctive function. Aristotle believes that if the human function can be determined, then in such a similar manner, we get to discover the typical function of a given artifact hence understand the reason behind being a good human. Furthermore, the typical human function is not just living and surviving since plants do so. Relative to Aristotle, the human function is the soul’s activity which follows a rational concept. He describes the soul as a human faculty and the principle of rationality as non-instinctive established on reason.